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Janka Hardness Scale

Overview

The Janka hardness test measures the resistance of a sample of wood to denting and wear. It measures the force required to embed an 11.28mm (.444 in) steel ball into wood to half the ball's diameter. This method leaves an indentation. A common use of Janka hardness ratings is to determine whether a species is suitable for use as flooring.

 

The hardness of wood varies with the direction of the wood grain. Testing on the surface of a plank, perpendicular to the grain, is said to be of "side hardness". Testing the cut surface of a stump is called a test of "end hardness".

 

Species

(pounds-force)

Zebrawood

1575

Yvyraro

3040

Yellow Birch, Iroko

1260

White Oak

1360

Western White Pine

420

Western Juniper

626

Wenge, Red Pine, Hornbeam

1630

Tualang

1624

True Pine, Timborana

1570

Teak

1155

Tasmanian Oak

1350

Tallowwood

1933

Sydney Blue Gum

2023

Sycamore

770

Sweet Birch

1470

Sucupira, Brazilian Chestnut, Tiete Chestnut

3417

Spotted Gum

2473

Southern Yellow Pine (Longleaf)

870

Southern Yellow Pine (Loblolly and Shortleaf)

690

Southern Chestnut

2670

Snakewood, Letterhout, Piratinera Guinensis

3800

Silver Maple[6]

700

Siberian Larch

1100

Shedua

710

Schinopsis brasiliensis, Quebracho, Barauna, Chamacoco[2]

4800

Schinopsis balansae, Quebracho Colorado, Red Quebracho[3]

4570

Sapele, Sapelli, Kupa'y

1510

Santos Mahogany, Bocote, Cabreuva, Honduran Rosewood

2200

Rosewood

1780

Ribbon Gum

1349

Red Oak (Northern)

1290

Red Maple[5]

950

Red Mahogany, Turpentine

2697

Purpleheart

1860

Pradoo

2170

Piptadenia Macrocarpa, Curupay, Angico Preto, Brazilian Tiger Mahogany

3840

Peruvian Walnut

1080

Peroba

1557

Parana

780

Paper Birch

910

Osage Orange[4]

2040

Natural Bamboo (represents one species)

1380

Movingui

1230

Mesquite

2345

Merbau

1925

Merbau

1712

Massaranduba, Brazilian Redwood, Paraju

3190

Makore

1100

Mahogany, Honduran Mahogany

800

Lignum vitae, Guayacan, Pockenholz

4500

Larch

1200

Larch

590

Lapacho

3640

Lacewood, Leopardwood

840

Kentucky coffeetree

1390

Kempas

1710

Karri

2030

Jarrah

1910

Ipê, Brazilian Walnut, Lapacho

3684

Highland Beech

1686

Hickory, Pecan, Satinwood

1820

Hemlock

500

Heart Pine

1225

Hard Maple, Sugar Maple

1450

Guatambú, Kyrandy, Balfourodendron riedelianum

2240

Grey Ironbark

3664

Goncalo Alves, Tigerwood

1850

Golden Teak

2330

Ebony

3220

Eastern White Pine

380

Eastern Red Cedar

900

Douglas Fir

660

Curupixa

1490

Cumaru, Brazilian Teak

3540

Cuipo

22

Cocobolo

1136

Chestnut

540

Cherry

995

Caribbean Walnut

1390

Caribbean Heart Pine

1280

Carbonized Bamboo (represents one species)

1180

Carapa Guianensis, Brazilian Mesquite

1220

Cameron

1940

Bubinga

1980

Brushbox

2135

Brazilian Olivewood

3700

Brazilian Koa

2160

Brazilian Eucalyptus, Rose Gum

1125

Brazilian Ebony

3692

Brazilian Cherry, Jatoba

2350

Box Elder

720

Boreal

1023

Bolivian Cherry

3650

Boire

940

Bloodwood

2900

Blackwood

1720

Black Walnut, North American Walnut

1010

Black Locust

1700

Black Cherry, Imbuia

950

Basswood

410

Bangkirai

1798

Balsa

100

Australian Cypress

1375

Australian Buloke[1]

5060

Ash (White)

1320

American Beech

1300

Amendoim

1912

Alder (Red)

590

Afzelia, Doussie, Australian Wormy Chestnut

1810

African Pearwood, Moabi

3680

African Padauk

1725

African Mahogany

830